Mexican War of Independence

While social and political turmoil had been growing in Mexico (then called New Spain) since the turn of the 19th century, insurgency against its colonial ruler did not formally mobilize until September 16, 1810, when Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla publicly called for a revolt and raised a local army. Armed conflict between rebel factions and loyalist forces continued until 1820, when events in Spain convinced the Mexican elite to reject Spanish sovereignty and form an alliance with the guerrilla insurgents. Together, they drafted the Plan de Iguala—a blueprint for the future Mexican Empire—and drove the Spanish viceroy to resign. Mexican independence was fully realized on September 27, 1821, when the joint army entered Mexico City. As a result, the province of Texas transitioned from Spanish to Mexican rule, eventually forming the state of Coahuila y Tejas.

Texas: The Tejanos, Part I
Hosted by Houston news anchor Bill Balleza, “Texas: The Tejanos” is part of a 1970s educational film series produced by KHOU-TV. Part I focuses on the history of native Texans between the Spanish colonial period and the Mexican War of Independence, from the establishment of missions to the development of ranching to the growing tension between Texas, Mexico, and Spain.

Spanish Colonization
Texas Revolution